Monday, June 3, 2019

Ethiopia PESTEL Analysis

Ethiopia PESTEL AnalysisPolitical ContextFor much of the twenty century, Ethiopia was ruled by highly centralized governments. The current ruling troupe EPRDF has governed Ethiopias since 1991 . Since taking power of the EPRDF has led an ambitious reform effort to initiate regeneration by more democratic governance of governance and decentralize pledge .It has involved devolving powers mandates primary by regional Empires then to woredas, district authorities, kebeles authorise and/or village authoised.Although the formal ethiopians state structure has been transfornance from highly centralized system to federal plus decentralized one a no. of challenges remain .National elections in 2005 2010 , and the hugely uncontested local anaesthetic elections in April month of 2008 , illustrated the fragility of the democratics transition Dominance by EPRDF , weakened state by opposition .In May 2010 parliamentary elections resulted in a 99.6 per centumage of huge victory for the ruling EPRDF this assort ,reducing the opposition from 174 to only two seats in the 547 lower.January 2009 Ethiopian Parliament passed legislation by regulate civilian society organize.. succession numerous CSOs had tenacious argued for new coherent frame trifle. the new honor is restrictive in demarcating areas of operations for different types of CSOs (for example receiving more than 10 pct of funding from external sources from many activity areas ) .The government DAG , comprising multilateral donors bilateral donors , agreed that the implementation of the CSO virtue will be reviewed regularly through their joint High-Level meeting place structures.CountryConventional long form federal authorised participatory Re earthly concern of Ethiopia conventional short form Ethiopia local long form Ityopiya Federalizing Demokrasiyawi Republic local short form Ityopiya former Abyssinia, Italian East Africa abbreviation FDRE Government typeFederal republicCapitalName Addisab aba geographic coordinates 902N, 3842E time battle UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of we shin ton, DC during Time)Administrative course of studys9 ethnically based states ,( singular kilo) self governing administrations* , Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb , Oromia, Sumale Somalianan, Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch. independenceOldest independent country in Africa one of the oldest by world at least 2,000 geezerhood ( may be traced it to the Aksumite Kingdom , which was coalesced in the first century B.C.)ConstitutionRatified 8 December 1994, useful 22 August 1995Legal systemCivil police systemInternational law organization participationHas not succumb by ICJ jurisdiction declarare, non-party state to the IctusSuffrage18 years of age universalExecutive emergenceChief of state President GIRMA Woldegiorgis ( since 8th October 2001) Head of government P.M MELES Zenawi (since August 1995) Cabinet State Council of ministers, ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of Peoples Representatives.Elections president elected by two department , chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term) election last held on 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013) prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections election results GIRMA Woldegiorgis was elected president percent of vote by the House of Peoples Representatives 79%Legislative branchBicameral Parliament consists of House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the create verbally and federal-regional issues) (108 seats members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of Peoples Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats members directly elected by usual vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms) elections last held on 23rd of May 2010 ( next to be held in 2015) election results percent of vote NA seats by party EPRDF 499, BGPDP 9, APDO 1, SPDP 24,ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, FORUM 1, HNL 1, independent 1Judicial branchFederal Supreme hail (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of Peoples Representatives for separate federal judges ,Prime minister submits to the House of Peoples Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrat Council)Political parties and leadersAfar National Democratic Party or ANDP Mohammed KEDIR All Ethiopian angiotensin converting enzyme Organization or AEUO Hailu SHAWEL Arena Tigray GEBRU Asrat Argoba Peoples Democratic Organization or APDO Abdulkader MOHAMMED Benishangul Gumuz Peoples Democratic Party or BGPDP Mulualem BESSE Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP AYELE Chamois Ethiopian Democratic Party or electronic selective information processing MUSHE Semen Ethiopi an Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) Dr. Moa FRISSA Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF MELES Zenawi Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM Garage Peoples Democratic Front GIRMA Boggle Harari National League or HNL YASIN Hussein Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM Oromo Peoples Congress or OPC IMERERA Gudina Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF BUH Hussein Somali Peoples Democratic Party or SPDP Abdulfetah Shack ABDULAHI South Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Union or SEPDU TILAHUN Neodesha United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF BEYENE Petros Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ Dr. NEGASSO GadaraPolitical pressure groups and leadersEthiopian Peoples Patriotic Front or EPPF Ogden National dismission Front or ONLF Oromo Liberation Front or OLF DAOUD IbsenInternational organization participationACP, Fad, G-24, AU, FAO, COMESA, Interpol,G-77, IFAD, IAEA, PC A, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ICRM, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, UPU, IOC, WFTU, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, WHO, ITU, ITUC, UNISFA, MIGA, UNWTO, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, WCO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)Diplomatic representant in the USchief of mission Ambassador GIRMA Birru chancery 3506 International Drive Washington ,NW , DC 20008 telephone 1 (202) 364-1200 FAX 1 (202) 587-0195 consulate(s) general Los Angeles consulate(s) New YorkDiplomatic representation from the USchief of mission Ambassador E. carrel Donaldembassy Entoto Street, Addis Ababa mailing address P. O. Box no. 1014 , Addis Ababa ,Ethiopia. telephone 251 11-517-40-00 FAX 251 11-517-40-01Flag descriptionThree equal horizontal bands of green on top of sag down , yellow, and red ,yellow pentagrams single yellow rays emanat from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands green represent apprehend the fertilize of the land, yellow , while red s tands for sacrifice heroism in the defense of the land the blue of the disk symbolize peaces pentagram represents the unity equivalence of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia.Note Ethiopia is the oldest independented country in Africa, three main color of her flag ( adopted californias 1895) were often adopted other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors the emblem in the center of the current flag has added in 1996.National anthemName Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enact Ethiopia ( March Forward ,Respected Mother Ethiopia) lyrics/ unison DEREJE Maluku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu mark off adopted 1992GroupAll, APLAA, Sahel Region Africa, AfricaPresident Girma WoldegiorgisThe presidency is a very large ceremonial post , and has been held since 2001 by Girmas Woldegiorgis, veteran parliamentarian and civil aviation official.Presidents serve 6 year terms and are elected by parliament . mister woldegiorgis had re-elected by 2007 .Prime minist er Hailemariam Desalegnafter serving as dy. prime minister unconnected minister to his veteran predecessor Males Zenawi year 2010, Hailemariam Desalegns was sworn prime minister in September 2012.Relative outsider in the ranks by the governing Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front , Mr. Hailemariam became acting prime minister on the dedte Mr. genus Meles in August but set about a backroom struggle to gain the approval of the Front leadership before assume by the most powerful post in the country.Mister Hailemariam was hunt in acadamic regional government while many EPRDF luminaries came to the fore through fighting against by communist government in the 1980.He benefited from a scheme Mr. Meles launched in 2009 he to bring technocrats into central government of state , earned a reputation as a loyal aide to the prime minister. scotch overview of EthiopiaEconomic OverviewEthiopia, with a commonwealth of about 84 million (2012), is the second-most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. One of the worlds oldest civilizations ,Ethiopia is alike one of the worlds much unfortunate countries .At USdollar 390 , Ethiopias per capita income is much lower than the Sub-Saharan African average of US$ 1,165 in FY 2010 , ranking it as the 6th poorest country in the world ( Atlas Method).After the major drought in 2002/03 that resulted in gross domestic product contract , Ethiopia has been one of the fastest growing economies in African countries . Official statistics indicated that an average real GDP growth of 11 percent over the last six consecutive years . its robust growth performance and considerable development gains came downstairs brat during 2008 and 2011 with the emergence of twin macroeconomic challenges of high inflation and a difficult balance of aspires situation .Problem was exacerbated by the high fuel and food prices in the world-wide market.Though Ethiopia made progress in tackling the 2008-2011 macroeconomic challenges . The rece nt surge of inflation depicts the countrys vulnerable macroeconomic condition .Annual end of period inflation which stood at 16.5 percent in February 2011 , more than twiced reaching 36 percent in February 2012 . Food inflation rate was increased from 13 percent to 47 percent while non food inflation , decreased moderately from 22 percent to 21 percent during the same period .It is unlikely that inflation will promptly fall towards the GTP goals of single digits within 2012 .Monetary factors played a key role in driving the inflation rate in Ethiopian states .For instance, reserve coin used by the National Bank as monetary policy anchor grew by 51 percent in February 2011 . It was very large referable to the accumulation of foreign exchange reserves without any offsetting utensil and increased borrowing by public enterprises for infrastructure investment which in effect contributed to the increase in money supply.In an effort by control inflation rising cost of living , Governm ent has been take various measure including compel tight cash controls on government expenditure, temporarily introducing price caps (which were subsequently lifted ) on selected goods increase the salary of civil servants by 35 to rough 39 percent. In early January 2012, the National Bank of Ethiopia lowered reserve requirement after the banking sector faced severe liquidity problem . This also lowered the minimum reserve ratio of deposit from 15 percent to ten percent , at the same time the amount of liquid assets as a proportion of deposits was also reduced from 25 percent to twenty percent . This measure was not accompanied by the admit sterilization mechanism and contributed to a sharp increase in money supply from 32 percent in December 2011 to 35 percent at the end of January 2012. While Ethiopias economy is evaluate by continue grow at a healthy pace macro situation will remain at a lower place adjudicate in the foreseeable futureEthiopias economy is based on agricult ure which accounts for 85% of total employ and41% of GDP. Coffee remains a major exportation crop for Ethiopia .The agricultural sector suffers of poor cultivation practices frequent drought.But recents joint effort by the Government of Ethiopia donors have strengthed Ethiopia agricultural resilience , contributing for a reduction in the number of Ethiopians threatened with starvation . 5 year Growth and Transformation Plan that Ethiopia unveiled in October 2010 presents a government-led effort to strain the ambitious development goals of Country .The banking, insurance, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors but Ethiopia has attracted significant foreign investment in commercial agriculture , textiles, leather and manufacturing products . on a lower floor Ethiopias constitution ,State owns all land and provides longterm leases to the tenants land use security systems are now being issued in some areas so that tenants have more recognizable rights to go along occupancy and hence make more concerted efforts to improve their leaseholds .While GDP growth has remained very high , per capita income of Ethiopia is among the lowest in the world.GDP (purchasing power parity)$94.76billion (2011est.) $88.13billion (2010est.) $81.6billion (2009est.) note data are in 2011 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate)$30.5 billion (2011 EST.)GDP Real growth rate7.5 %( 2011est.) 8 %( 2010est.) GDP per capita (PPP)$1,100(2011est.) $1,000(2010est.) Note data are in 2011 US dollarsGDP composition by sectorAgriculture 41% industry 13% services 46% (2011 EST.)universe below poverty line29.2% (FY09/10 EST.)Labor force37.9 million (2007)Labor force by occupationAgriculture 85% indu1111stry 5% services 10% (2009 EST.)Unemployment rateNA%Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 summation 24.9% male 19.5% female 29.4% (2006)Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest10% 4.1% highest 10% 25.6% (2005)Distribution of family income- Gina business leader 30(2000) 40 (1995)Investment (gross fixed)22.9% of GDP (2011 EST.)BudgetRevenues $5.355billion expenditures $5.988 billion (2011 EST.)Taxes and other revenues15.2% of GDP (2011 EST.)Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2% of GDP (2011 EST.)Public Debt42.3%ofGDP(2011est.) 48.3%ofGDP(2010est.) Note official data cover central government debit , including debt instruments issued/owned by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debit owned by foreign entities the data exclude debt issued by sub national entities , as well as intergovernmental debt. debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctionsInflation rate (consumer prices)33.2 %( 2011est.) 8.1% (2010 EST.)Central bank discount rateNA%Commercial bank prime lending rate15 %( 31December2011est.) 14.5% (31 December 2010 EST.) nervous strain of money$4.93billion (31December2008) $4.229 billion (31 December 2007)Agriculture productsCereals, sheep, pulses, fish coffee, oilseed, hides, cotton, sugarcane, cattle, potatoes, kyat, cut flowers,goatsIndustriesFood processing, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, beverages, leather,cement.Industrial production growth rate9.5% (2010 EST.) electricity production3.715 billion KWh (2008 EST.)Electricity consumption3.357 billion kWh (2008 est.)Oil production0 bbl/day (2010 est.)Natural gas production0 cup m (2009 est.)Exports$2.75 billion (2011 est.) $2 billion (2010 est.)Imports$8.25 billion (2011 est.) $8.46 billion (2010 est.)Exchange ratesBirr (ETB) per US dollar 17.2 (2011 est.) 14.41 (2010 est.) 11.78 (2009) 9.57 (2008) 8.96 (2007)Fiscal year8 July 7 JulySocio culture overview of EthiopiaReligionEthiopia is declare as a multi-religious country . Most of the Christians live in the highlands , as well as the Muslims mainly inhabit(live on) the lowlands .Adherents of traditional faiths are primarily concentrated in the southern regions.Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Protestant 18.6% (which include Ethiopian Orthodox Tirades Church and the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yeses), Muslim 20.5%, traditional (2.6%)Catholic 10.3%, all others 0.6%.1 flyspeck Ethiopian Jewish community, although most have migrated to Israel.LanguagesThere are 90 individual languages of Ethiopia according to Ethnologue , with the 1994 Ethiopian census indicating that some 77 tongues were spoken locally in Ethiopia .Many of these languages belong to the Afro-Asiatic family (Semitic and Cushitic). Osmotic languages are also spoken here,Additionally, Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nations Niloticethnic minorities.Amharic 32.7 % as a 1st Ethiopian language, Oromigna 31.6%, Tigrinya 6.1%, Somali 6.0%, Sidamo 3.5%, Guragigna 3.5%, other local languages English (major foreign language taught in schooldayss), Arabic.Amharic is the official national language . Amharic was also the language of primary school instruction , but was replaced in many areas by local languages such as Tigrinya and Oromifa . English is the most widely sp oken foreign language and is taught in all secondary schools.Age structure0-14 years 46.3% (male 20,990,369 or female 21,067,961) 15-64 years 51% (male 22,707,235 and female 23,682,385) 65 years and over 2.7% (female 1,388,301 / male 1,037,488) (2011 EST.)Population growth rate3.179% (2011 EST.)Birth rate42.59 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)Death rate10.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)Net migration rate-0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population Note repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years some Somali, Sudanese and Eritrean refugees , who fled to Ethiopia from the famine or fighting in their own countries , continue to return to their homes .urbanizationUrban population 17% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization 3.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 EST.)Major cities populationADDIS ABABA (capital) 2.863 million (2009)Sex ratioAt birth 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years 0.96 male(s)/fema le 65 years and over 0.75 male(s)/female total population 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 EST.)Infant mortality rateTotal 75.29 deaths/1,000 live births male 86.03 deaths/1,000 live births female 64.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 EST.)Life expectancy at birthTotal population 56.56 years male 53.99 years female 59.21 years (2011 EST.)Total fertility rate5.97 children born/woman (2011 EST.)Major Infectious DiseasesDegree of endangerment high food or waterborne ailments bacterial and protozoa diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vector borne diseases malaria respiratory disease Meningococcal meningitis animal contact disease rabies water contact disease SchistosomiasisNationalityNoun Ethiopian(s) adjective EthiopianLiteracyDefinition age 15 or above can read and keep total population 42.7% male 50.3% Maternal mortality rate470 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)Age 35.1% (2003 EST.Legal overview of EthiopiaWORKING CONDITIONS OF WOMEN voice 87. General. (1) Women shall not be discriminated against as regards payment and employment on the basis of their sex.(2) It is prohibited to employ women or female on types of work that may be listed by the Minister as oddly arduous or harmful to their health.(3) No pregnant women shall be layed to eork in night between time limit 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. or be employed on overtime work. subdivision 88. Maternity leave. (1) An employer shall grant time off to a pregnant women worker without deducting her wages , for medical trial connected with her pregnancy, provided ,She is obliged to present a medical certificate of her examinationWORKING CONDITIONS OF YOUNG WORKERSSection 89. General. (1) For the purpose of this Proclamation , young worker agent a person who has attained the age of fourteen but is not over the age of 18 years.(2) It is prohibited to employ persons under fourteen years of age.(3) It is prohibited to employ young workers which are on account of its nature or due to the condition in which it is carr ied out, endanger the life or health of the young workers performing it.Section 90 . Limits of hours of work . Regular hours of work for young workers shall not exceed seven hours a day.Section 91. Night and overtime work It is prohibited to employ young workers on1.night work between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.2.overtime work or3. weekly rest days or4.public holidaysLABOUR COURTSSection 137. Establishment of labor divisions. (1) There shall be set up labor divisions, as may be necessary, at each regional first instance court , each regional court which hears appeals from regional first instance courts and at the Central High Court .(2) The Minister shall submit the no. of labor divisions to be established in conformity with subsection (1) of this section to be determined by the appropriate authority.Section 138. Labor division of the regional first instance court. (1) The labor division of the regional first instance court shall have jurisdiction to settle and determine the following and other similar individual labor disputes(a)disciplinary measures including dismissal(b) Claims related to the cancellation or termination of employment contracts(c) Questions related to hours of work,leave remuneration and rest day(d)questions about the issuance of certificate of employment(e) Claims related to employment injury.(F) Unless provided for in this Proclamation , any petty and criminal offences under this Proclamation.CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENTDivision 1. Formation of contractSection 4. Elements of a contract . (1) A contract of employment shall be deemed formed where a person agrees indirectly or directly , to perform work for and under the authority of an employer for a definite or indefinite period or piece work in return for remuneration.Section 5. Form. Unless otherwise provided by law , Contract of employment shall not be subject to any special form.Section 6. A written contract of employment ,Subject to the provisions of the pertinent law , a written contract of emplo yment shall specify the following(1) The name ,address and contact details of the employer(2) The name, age, address and work card number. if any of the worker(3) The balance of the contracting parties made in accordance with section 4(3) of this Proclamation and(4) The signature of the contracting parties.Section 7. Contract of employment not made in writing .(1) Contract of employment is not made in written form , they shall, within fifteen days from the conclusion of the contract , give the worker a signed and written statement containing the requirements specified under section 6 of this ProclamationSection 10. Contract for definite period or piece season of contract of employmentSection 9. Contract for an indefinite period . Any employment contract shall be deemed to have been concluded for an indefinite period exclude for those provided for under section 10 A contract of employment may be concluded for a definite period or for piece work in the case of(1) Th e performance of specified piece work.(2) The replacement of a worker who is not temporarily present due to leave or affection or other dos(3) The work performance in the event of abnormal pressure of work(4) The performance of urgent work to prevent damage or disaster to life or property , to repair breakdowns or defects in kit and caboodle, materials, plant or building of the undertaking.(5) Irregular work, It relates to a permanent part of the works of an employer but is performed at irregular intervals(6)seasonal work which relates to the permanent part of the works of an employment but is performed only for a specified period of the year which is regularly repeated in the course of a number of years(7) Occasional work It doesnt form part of the permanent activity of the employer but which is done intermittently. marches OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSSection 23. General. (1) A contract of employment shall only be terminated upon initiation by the employer or worker and in accordance with the provisions of the law or a joint placement or by the correspondence of the two parties.(2) The amalgamation or division/transfer of self-will of an undertaking shall not have the effect of terminating a contract of employment.Division 1. Termination of contract of employment by law or by agreementSection 24. Termination by law. A contract of employment shall terminate on the following grounds(1) As on expiry of the period or on the completion of the work where the contract of employment is for a definite period or piece work(2) Upon the death of the worker(3) On the privacy of the worker in accordance with the relevant law(4) When the undertaking ceases operation permanently or due to bankruptcy or for any other cause(5) When the worker is not able to work due to partial or permanent incapacity.Section 25. Termination by agreement.(1) The parties have rights to terminate their contract of employment by agreement, provided however that waiver by the worker of any of hi s rights under the law shall have no legal effect.(2) Agreement termination shall be effective and bin.DETERMINATION OF WAGESSection 53. General. (1) Wages means the regular payment to which the worker is entitled in return for the performance of the work that he performs under a contract of employment.(2) For the purposes of the following payments shall not be considered as wages(a) Overtime pay(b) Amount received by way of transfer expenses , per diems , expatriation allowance, hardship allowances, and similar allowance payable to the worker on the occasion of travel or change of his residence(c) Bonus(D) Commission(E) Other incentives stipendiary for additional work results.(f) Service charge received by customers.Section 54. Conditions of payment for idle time ( 1) Unless otherwise provided for in this Proclamation or the relevant law , salaries shall be paid only for work done.(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1 )Section, a worker shall be entitled to his wage if he was ready t o work but, because of interruptions in supply of tools and raw materials or for reasons not attributable to him was not able to work ding on the worker only where it is made in writing.5.7 MODE AND EXECUTION OF PAYMENTSection 55. General. Wages shall be paid in cash , provided that where the worker and employer so agree, it may be paid in large-minded . Wages paid in kind may not exceed the market value in the area of the payment in kind and in no case may then exceed 30 per cent of the wages paid in cash.Section 56. Execution of payments 1) Unless otherwise agreed, wages shall be paid at the place of work and on working day.(2) In case the payment mentioned in subsection (1) of this falls on sunlight or a public holiday, the day of payment shall fall on the preceding working day.Section 57. Payment in person. Unless otherwise provided by collective agreement or law, wages shall be paid directly to the worker or to a person delegated by him.Section 58. Time of payment. Wages sha ll be paid at such intervals as are provided for by law or collective agreement or work rules or contract of employment.Section 59. Deduction from wages,1) The employer shall not deduct from , attach/set off the wages of the worker except where it is provided otherwise by law or collective agreement or work rules or in accordance with a court order or a written agreement of the worker.PREVENTIVE MEASURESSection 92. Obligations of an employer( An employer shall take the necessary measures) to safeguard adequately the health and safety of the workers he shall in particular1. Comply with the occupational health and safety requirements provided for in this Proclamation2.Take appropriate steps to ensure that workers are properly instructed and notified concerning the hazards of their respective occupations and the precautions necessary to avoid accident and injury to health ensure that directives are given and also assign safety officer3. Provide workers with personal protective equipmen t , materials and clothing and instruct them of their use4. Register employment accident and occupational diseases and notify the labor inspection of same5.arrange, according to the nature of the work , at his own expenses for the medical examination of newly recruited workers and for those workers engaged in hazardous work.6. Ensure that the workplace and exposit do not cause danger to the health and safety of the workers7.take appropriate pre-executions to ensure that all the processes of work s

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