Sunday, January 19, 2020

Electoral Basis Of The Two-par :: essays research papers

In the article â€Å"Electoral Basis of the Two Party System† by Maurice Duverger, the political party systems are dissected and looked at from many points of view. Democratic countries can have the political party system range from a two party system, such as the one in the United States, to a many party system, such as the party system in France and Italy. This article also gives the specific views of those few people whom are opposed to the political party systems as well as those few that are for the political party systems. In speaking of those that are in opposition to the political party system, many views and opinions are expressed. The political party system is called a party oligarchy because of the way the election process occurs. The article says, â€Å"The party oligarchy is widened without ever becoming a democracy, for the election is carried out by the members, who are a minority in comparison with those who give their votes to the party in general elections.† Duverger also states that parties usually tend to create an opinion formed by propaganda and improper procedure, such as the ballot procedure. In conclusion, â€Å"the party system is less a photograph of opinion is a projection of the party system.† According to this statement, Duverger expresses that â€Å"the general development of parties tries to emphasize their deviation from the democratic regime [which is a mode of system of rule or government].† The electoral processes are gradually losing ground in the appointment of leaders by nomination or co-option. Because of this fact, â€Å"discipline among members is tightened both by these material means and by an even greater effort of propaganda and persuasion which leads them to venerate the Party and its leaders and to believe in their infallibility.† This statement leads others to believe that a system without political parties would be better for the country as well as for the governmental system of that particular country. Democracy was built on the basis of the eighteenth-century philosophical ideas, which the experts think is true and justifiable. Duverger states that all governments are oligarchic, which means the domination of many by the few. Governments of all types imply discipline, which means â€Å"All discipline is imposed from without: ‘self-discipline’ is itself the result of education, which implies a prior external discipline, and is always very limited.† After looking at a few things that are wrong with governments and why the political party system should be non-existent, â€Å"true democracy is something different, more modest but more real.

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